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Diabetes - Symptoms and treatment - Shyam Amladi

 Instances of diabetes are on the rise in the United States. Glucose intolerance, first sign of diabetes, is no longer uncommon, even among the young.

Simply  defined diabetes is a condition in which body cannot control or process glucose (sugar) through its system because it cannot produce enough insulin to counteract flow of sugar into the bloodstream. Insulin is created by pancreas, Pancreas is a large gland in the sabdomen which produces insulin and enzymes; insulin controls sugar in your blood and enzymes help the digestive process, particularly in breaking down different nutrients, waste matter and minerals from consumed food and drinks.

You may have heard of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here is the key difference.

 

  • Diabetes, type 1: The body’s immune system attacks and destroys the pancreas’ insulin-producing cells. Lifelong insulin injections are required to control blood sugar.
  • Diabetes, type 2: The pancreas loses the ability to appropriately produce and release insulin. The body also becomes resistant to insulin, and blood sugar rises.

Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent type is a condition in which:

  • Your pancreas does not make enough insulin.
  • The insulin that your body makes does not work as well as it should.
  • Your liver also makes too much sugar. Sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood, 
  • Anyone with a body mass index of over 25 and one who has additional risk factors, such as high blood pressure, a sedentary lifestyle, a history of polycystic ovary syndrome, having delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds, a history of diabetes in pregnancy, high cholesterol levels, a history of heart disease, or having a close relative with diabetes.blood sugar.

Early symptoms of a diabetic or pre-diabetic condition are: frequent urination, excessive thirst or hunger accompanied with weight gain. As mentioned, family history of diabetes is also important to track.

Whether you are a diabetic or not depends upon the test results. There are a couple of tests that you should take

  • A1C Test: measures your average blood sugar level generally over the past few months. Blood sugar usually  attaches to hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to your organs and your brain--an essential life-sustaining mechanism. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached and less effective your organs and brain will be functionally. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. Anything over 7% is considered a diabetic conditon needing oral or injectable medicine.

Certain conditions, such as pregnancy, can render A1C tests inaccurate, so check with your doctor for a full explanation.

  • Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at different times during the day. . Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — or higher suggests diabetes.
  • Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level between 100 and 125 mg/dL (5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you'll be diagnosed with diabetes.

It is important to note that like high blood pressure, diabetes is a silent condition. Besides medicines, the tthree things you can do to prevent its onslaught or deterioration, depending upon whether you are susceptible to it or have it are:

  • Exercise, particularly fat burning ones--briskwalking is excellent and has been proven to be effective in fighting diabtes
  • Healthy diet
  • Stress management